Assignment: The Survey Method, Classical Conditioning, and Observational Learning
1. The survey method involves asking people several questions about the relevant topic and can be conducted in the form of interviews or by using a questionnaire (Ciccarelli & White, 2014). Based on personal experience, it is possible to provide an example of a survey in the form of electronic questionnaire organized by Sony Corporation. Its primary goal was to assess the satisfaction with the products of the company. It should be noted that the participation in the survey required Sony ID, i.e. the purchase of any of Sony’s products. The questionnaire was composed of the uniform questions concerning personal data (age, sex, family) and the product-centered ones (the type of product, place of purchase, the satisfaction with the service, potential future purchases, etc.). Finally, it should be noted that the mentioned survey included an element of motivation – each of the participants had a chance of winning a 250-dollar Sony Style voucher every month.
The primary advantage of surveys, including the one described above, is the opportunity to gather data from large amount of people (Ciccarelli & White, 2014). In particular, surveying via the Internet does not depend on time or place, thus, increasing the amount of the potential interviewees. In addition, it allows obtaining certain personal information regarding the tastes of consumer and their preferences, as well as the attitude towards a particular brand. Moreover, the uniform questions simplify preparing to the survey, making it less time- and cost-consuming.
On the other hand, such method has its disadvantages. First of all, it is required to define a group of people that can provide relevant data on the cause, which can be achieved by using the entry barriers (as in the provided example). However, even if such problem is addressed, there is another disadvantage. There is no guarantee the answers will reflect objective reality as people can distort the trust or simply lie when being surveyed (Ciccarelli & White, 2014).
2. Classical conditioning is an individual involuntary response to a stimulus that is acquired during life and which may change or disappear (Ciccarelli & White, 2014). A personal example of classical conditioning can be a situation when a favorite music track is set as a phone ringtone and month later is replaced with another one. As a result, hearing the melody of the first mentioned composition can be still perceived as a sign of a phone call for the next two or three months, resulting in a desire to take the phone and answer an imaginary call.
It is possible to distinguish both unconditioned and conditioned stimuli and responses from the provided example. In particular, the unconditioned stimulus is the one that occurs naturally, leading to the similar reflex (Ciccarelli & White, 2014). In the described situation, it is any loud sound or noise, which causes an unconditioned response (the one that occurs involuntarily) –a turn of the head or body to define the source of a sound. On the other hand, a conditioned stimulus is an event, which, in combination with the unconditioned one, leads to the learned response (Ciccarelli & White, 2014). As was mentioned before, such stimulus was a favorite musical composition set as a ringtone causing a conditional reflex – a desire to take the phone and check it on the incoming calls, even after the song has been replaced.
3. Observational learning is mastering the new skill or behavior by observing the actions of a model, namely another person using the same skill or performing a similar behavior. It should be noted that such process can be either desirable of involuntary, depending on the situation (Ciccarelli & White, 2014). A visit to a Chinese restaurant several years ago can be considered as a personal example of observational learning. The ordered meal was served with a set of chopsticks, but a lack of skill for using them prevented enjoying the food to the fullest. Therefore, it was decided to observe the other visitors eating with chopsticks and copy their actions in order to learn how to use them. Such observation allowed defining several basics of eating with chopsticks. First of all, the lower stick had to be put between the thumb and a palm and fixed so that its edge was in contact with the ring finger, while the upper one had to be placed in hand like a pen. When eating, the basic movements had to be p with the upper stick, while the lower one had to remain fixed.
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It should be noted that any process of observational learning consists of such elements as attention, memory, imitation and motivation (Ciccarelli & White, 2014). Thus, it is possible to distinguish them from the example provided above. First of all, in order to learn how to use chopsticks, it was necessary to pay attention to other visitors of the restaurant using them. Next, it was required to memorize the way the other people held the sticks and took pieces of food with them. Finally, it was required to reproduce their actions by placing the chopsticks in hand in the way that was mentioned above, as well as by eating the meal with them. In addition, it should be noted that the described process of observational learning was driven by a desire to enjoy the Chinese cuisine in the most authentic way, which served as the element of motivation.
4. The serial position effect is a specific feature of a human memory, which is manifested in the easier remembering and recollection of the information at the beginning and/or at the end of the data flow. Depending on the situation, it is referred to a primacy (the first words are easily remembered and rehearsed) or recency (the last words are easier to recollect) effect (Ciccarelli & White, 2014). A personal example is the attempt to memorize the shopping list that was given in the oral form, namely via phone. As in all the similar cases, the list included the names of products and their quantity. At its beginning, there were such items as greens, cornflakes and frankfurters, which were followed by other goods ending with soft drinks and biscuits.
In order to memorize the list, it was decided to resort to the most common technique – repeating it for a couple of times until it is learned by heart. Such method is simple and easy to use, but it has certain disadvantages. In particular, by reaching the middle of the shopping list, the names of the goods and their quantities were difficult to recollect, disrupting the flow of thoughts and forcing to start repeating the list from the beginning. As a result, the fist positions were repeated more often, which lead to their better memorizing. At the same time, the middle of the list, and especially its last part, were mostly neglected and, therefore, were more difficult to recollect. Therefore, the described situation can serve as an example of a primacy effect, i.e. the first words are remembered and recollected more easily in comparison with the other ones (Ciccarelli & White, 2014).
5. According to Howard Gardner, each person possesses nine different aspects of intelligence, which are manifested in a variety of daily activities (Ciccarelli & White, 2014). Thus, it is possible to provide personal examples of several intelligence types:
- Verbal intelligence is the ability to use language. A personal example of it is the preparation of a report, which had to be properly written and edited and orally presented in front of the class;
- Musical intelligence is the ability to compose and perform music. A personal example of it can be an attempt to whistle a favorite tune heard on the radio;
- Logical intelligence is the ability to implement logical thinking and solve mathematical problems. A personal example of it is the situation at the electronics shop on Black Friday. Upon seeing a discount on some goods, it was required to make a mental calculation of their price and assess the value of the proposition made by the shop;
- Visual/spatial intelligence is referred to the ability to understand the orientation of objects in space. A personal example of it involved the organizing of a storeroom in the house by defining how many and what types of things it may contain and the way they can be placed there;
- Movement intelligence is referred to eye and body coordination and orientation in space. An attempt to interpret speech by using sign language (gestures and body movements) can be considered as a personal example;
- Interpersonal intelligence is referred to the ability to relate to other people and understand their feelings. A personal example of it includes the situations that occur almost every day and involve interpreting the moods of relatives and friends from their facial expressions;
- Intrapersonal intelligence is the ability to understand one’s relationship with the other people, as well as the entire world. A personal example of it is a decision to become a better athlete, as well as initiating of personal changes required to achieve it (eating healthy food, exercising on a daily basis and avoiding harmful habits).