North against South
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In recent times, many cities in the United States such as Eustis in Lake County, Florida, have experienced a surge in crime rates. Some cities like New York have had a drastic decline in their crime levels. The paper discusses the crime rates of Eustis City and New York City, the centerpiece of the metropolis of New York and provides some reasons for the levels of offences in these two locations. The essay then compares the criminal norms using the overall index rate, the specific crimes rate, and the national crime victimization survey of 2014.
Crime in Eustis, Florida
Eustis has the total area of 9.6 square miles and the population of over 19000 people in 2014 as reported by the Census Bureau (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2015). The city has experienced a surge in its crime rate in recent times. According to the data from the Uniform Crime Reporting System, the overall offence index in 2013 in Eustis Florida was 1,367. As of 2014, the general crime index increased to 1,632 (FBI, 2015). Among the specific offences considered as violent ones, the rate of burglary crimes rose from 115 in 2009 to 121 in 2014. Meanwhile the level of robbery increased from 16 in 2009 to 20 in 2014. The city experienced a rise in rape criminal acts from 3 in 2009 to 5 in 2014. There was a lack of reported murder cases in 2009. Meanwhile, in 2010, there was a single reported matter (FBI, 2015). According to the Bureau of Justice (2015), the overall level of offences in Eustis is 33 percent higher than the national average one. In the city, a person has 1 out of 26 chances of becoming a victim of any crime.
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Reasons for Increase in the Crime Rate in Eustis
The community disorganization approach posits that elevated ranks of some structural features such as poverty and income inequality lead to the commission of crimes (Chilenski, Syvertsen, & Greenberg, 2015). For example, poverty is a factor that promotes an increase in the cases of juvenile thefts and robberies. Teenagers are forced to steal to provide for themselves what they have lacked in their poverty-ridden homes. It is a common trend in the African American neighborhoods of Eustis with most of residents being unable to provide adequately for their families (Crawford, 2000).
Unlike in larger metropolitan cities such as New York where there is a lack of privacy among neighbors, in Eustis, there is a stronger expectation of confidentiality. The situation makes it more likely for individuals to commit crimes (Chilenski, Syvertsen, & Greenberg, 2015). A potential perpetrator in Eustis expects the possible witnesses to keep to themselves in their houses and not to notice what is happening in the environment outside of their homes. Moreover, there may be an absence of bystanders in the areas of the city experiencing a low population density. Another reason for an increase in the crime rates in Eustis is that people rarely report there on some offences as compared to the level of reporting cases in the main towns. Criminals get motivated to continue committing crimes knowing that no one would complain for them (Chilenski, Syvertsen, & Greenberg, 2015).
The increase in ownership of firearms in Eustis has also contributed to the rise in the levels of crimes, especially murder, in the area. The situation has also been perpetuated further by the stand your ground Senate law (Chilenski, Syvertsen, & Greenberg, 2015). The regulation authorizes individuals to defend their lives against the perceived threats from other people and allows them to use any level of force to fight off the challenge. The law has led to a rise in crime rates and violence especially against racial minority communities in Eustis such as African Americans and Latin Americans (Chilenski, Syvertsen, & Greenberg, 2015).
Crime in New York City
The City of New York is an epitome of New York State’s metropolis region. It is considered the most populated town in the United States. It has the population of over 8.5 million people in the area of 469 square feet as in 2014 (FBI, 2015). According to the 2014 to 2015 uniform crime reporting estimates, there was an overall reduction in offences in New York City. In 2014, the violent crime rate was 24,191. In 2015, the level reduced to 23,225. The robbery rate decreased from 7,691 robberies in 2014 to 7,598 in 2015 (FBI, 2015). Aggravated assault levels lowered from 15,279 to 14,381.wMeanhile property crimes experienced a decline from 63,155 to 60,300. Reported cases of burglary in the city decreased from 7,433 to 6410. There was, however, an increase in murder cases from 146 to 164 and rape matters from 1,075 to 1,082 (FBI, 2015). In 2014, a person had 1 out of 46 chances of becoming a victim of any offense in the city (Bureau of Justice, 2015).
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Reasons for Reducing Crimes in New York City
Even though the estimates provided above are only for one year, the City of New York has been experiencing a decline in the levels of crime for over a decade. One of the reasons for the decrease of offences is the 2006 New York City Club Enforcement Initiative (Chilenski, Syvertsen, & Greenberg, 2015). The program required night clubs to have a failure in electronic identity scanners to which the government would revoke their licenses. The nightclubs were also required to have both cameras and trained security guards outside the club doors. The initiative was meant to prevent and reduce night club related offences that were common in the city.
The zero tolerance policing introduced in 1994 by New York City’s police commissioner William Bratton also led to the crime reduction in the town (Kelling & Bratton, 1998). As a part of police reforms, he established the policing based on a model proposed by the criminologists George Kelling and James Wilson. The two ones had developed the broken windows theory advocating for the prosecution of minor crimes. If it was left unchecked by those persons in authority it would lead to the development of major crimes. The essential elements of Bratton’s policing template included increasing police officers on foot patrol (Kelling & Bratton, 1998). There was also the establishment of the CompStat intelligence system, a computer-based program that uses the data and crime mapping techniques to inform police officers on crime hotspots. Bratton also empowered precinct commanders with autonomous power to develop and enforce the methods that would reduce crime rates in their areas. The policing model also applied the non-discretionary approach where petty offenders were never let off on warnings but arrested and subjected to the full force of law (Kelling & Bratton, 1998). The policing template was an ingenious method of targeting major criminals when they committed minor offences and arresting them for these crimes. This approach led to the decrease in the criminal actions such as drug abuse and trafficking, robberies, theft, and murder being common in the city especially on the subway.
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Comparison between Eustis’ and New York City’s Crime Rates
The two cities are compared using the 2014 overall crime index, specific crime levels, and the national crime victimization survey. The general offence index of New York in 2014 was 24,191. Meanwhile that one of Eustis was 1632 (FBI, 2015). On specific offenses, there were 146 reported murder cases in New York in 2014; while, in Eustis, there was only a single reported matter of killing. New York City had 7,433 burglary incidents. Meanwhile Eustis had 121 cases of the same offence. There were 7,691 matters of robbery in New York in 2014; while Eustis experienced 16 reported cases on the same crime. New York City had 15,279 assault incidents. In the meantime, Eustis had 40 assault cases. There were 1,075 reported matters of rape in New York City and 5 ones in Eustis (FBI, 2015). According to the 2014 victimization survey, a person has 1 out of 26 chances of being a victim of any offence in Eustis, Florida. In New York City, an individual has 1 out of 46 possibilities of becoming a prey of any criminal action (BOJ, 2015). Based on the figures alone, one can wrongfully perceive and deduce that Eustis is a safer city compared to New York. However, in comparing the data from the population’s perspective of the two towns, one can safely conclude the following fact. The rate of crime is, in reality, higher in Eustis with the population of slightly over 19,000 people in comparison with New York with its inhabitants of 9 million individuals.
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The crime rates in Eustis are on their rise with the levels of the rise of specific offences. These ones include such as rape increasing from 3 in 2009 to 5 in 2014 and burglary increase from 115 in 2009 to 121 in 2014. The rise in offences is attributed to the factors such as privacy, and poverty; increase in ownership of firearms, and the stand your ground law that perpetuates the commission of offenses. In New York, the opposite situation is happening. Crime rates are on their decline with assault levels reducing from 15,279 in 2014 to 14,381 in 2015. The techniques such as zero-tolerance policing and the Club Enforcement Initiative of New York City are credited with the decline of crime in the town. According to the comparison between these two locations, New York with its population of almost 9 million people is safer than Eustis with 19,000 persons living there.