Future Trends in International Criminal Justice
Table of Contents
The criminal justice system is a corroboration of three significant departments, which are law enforcement, justice, and corrections. Additionally, factors that influenced crime in the past also impact the future trends of the criminal justice system. The factors include macro-economic factors, shift in demographics and criminal justice responses. While demographics and macro-economic factors are central to the future of crime and criminal justice system, technology and globalization are also significant trend setters.
Demographic variables are the strongest determinant of law enforcement operations, and hence a significant trend setter in the criminal justice system. Time series model that explains the relationships between the size of crime-prone age group and crime rates indicates that both property and violence crime rates depend on whether the number of young men in society is either rising or dropping. Demographic variables that affect crime are the size of the male population within the crime prone years of fifteen to twenty five years. As such, the age structure of society is influential on the level of crime in society. In areas with a significant portion of young males, there is a higher rate of crime. Consequently, in areas with an aging population the crime rate is low (Findlay, 2008).
A number of studies indicate that crime rates depend on the economy of the country. The reasons may be that, during an economic boom, more people are employed, and as a result, less attracted to crime. The arguments are that booming economies have increased wealth, which increases consumers’ spending on commodities. An increase in the number of commodities increases theft opportunities. Additionally, during economic recessions, government fund cuts affect all departments. As a result, criminal justice systems work with reduced resources that hinder efficiently in adjudication cases (Findlay, 2008).
While demographics and macro-economic factors are central to the future of crime and criminal justice system another driving force is technology. Technological factors are in three categories. The first factor is advancement in technology, which enhances the nature and operations of criminal activities. Technology is targeted by criminal offences, such as the spread of malware and viruses and theft of the telecommunication infrastructure. Thirdly, technology is a means of deterring criminal activities. Additionally, technology facilitates the process of adjudicating crimes, and, as a result, of significant components defining the future trend of the judiciary due to the growth in digital data, and correctional facilities in monitoring inmates and parolees (Findlay, 2008).
Globalization results in advancement in telecommunications, international trade, and human trafficking. The reason is that it causes irrelevance of national borders. For example, the Internet facilitates transnational crime. It allows offenders in different countries to merge overcoming geographical limitations. For example, as a result of the Internet drug traffickers, physical money is not transferred between countries, which would lead to suspicion by law enforcement officers. As a result, they use online transfer services, which are easy and secure in terms of anonymity (Findlay, 2008).
Although there is a debate on the ability of international corroboration on the criminal justice systems to influence crime rates, factors such as criminal justice expenditure, the use of technology, and effectiveness of correctional facilities may increase the criminal justice systems. Therefore, prediction of future scope and nature of the criminal justice systems also considers both state and societal responses to the above trend setters. The first trends will be issues involving the extent of human right and privacy in relation to the need for monitoring. For example, in 2013, a whistle blower Edward Snowden revealed surveillance information by intelligence agencies such as NSA and GCHQ raising many controversies in the criminal justice system. As a result, the justice system will develop policies on the management of private information and extend of such freedom (Pattavina, 2005).
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As a result of globalization, there will be increased collaboration among countries in the subject of criminal justice. For the criminal justice system to be intelligent-led in protecting the public, effective management and sharing of information among countries is vital. As a result of globalization, criminal offenders can operate in foreign nations while at home country. As a result, inadequate information on criminal-profile of an individual may result delayed justice or freeing of a criminal. In addition to Interpol, countries will collaborate in sharing information to improve the justice system. Such information includes data in crime scenes and criminal profiles (Findlay, 2008).
As a result of inadequate resources to the criminal justice system, the state agencies will collaborate with private institutions to improve service delivery. As a result of the ever evolving technological world, criminal justice systems face a significant challenge in crime control. For example, technology affects every part of law enforcement. Law enforcement officers need advanced technology in monitoring street activities, terrorism organizations, cyber theft and even corporate governance. As a result, the interdependence of law enforcement and private security is apparent at both local and international level (Findlay, 2008).
For many decades, the study of only International Lawyer pursued international criminal tribunals. For example, during the Cold War, lawyers were active in the matter of international law despite regional politics. However, as the control expanded regional and international politics was vulnerable to the international criminal justice system. For example, countries have different political systems (Stacy, 2010). As a result, international lawyers face challenges in arguing the power of norms, except in general terms. Additionally, it is difficult to generalize issues from an international relations perspective as a practice or discipline. For example, there is a difference in human rights and freedoms in imperials and democratic states. The challenge necessities a review in the International law discipline with considerations on geopolitics (Mutua, 2004).