Emergency Plan: Part I
Table of Contents
Creating a complex emergency plan for any city is associated with a large number of challenges. The main reason for it is that a large number of factors and potential threats should be taken into consideration. The main focus is on terrorist threats that may emerge in Metropolis, Florida. The relevant city’s characteristics will be assessed and evaluated. The sources of potential threats will be determined.
Corresponding response strategies will be developed on the basis of the expected structure of challenges and threats. They will focus both on minimizing the negative consequences of terrorist attacks, if they occur, and preventing the main sources of threats. In other words, both resiliency and reactionary planning approaches will be used. The potential risks will be assessed in accordance with the existing methodological frameworks as well as the city’s demographic characteristics. Consistent recommendations will be formulated.
Potential Risk Areas and Concerns
As Metropolis is the largest city in Florida, it is a potential target of terrorist threats. Terrorists may use its high regional significance for destabilization of the situation in the city and achieving their terrorist plans. Owing to the characteristics of Metropolis several risk areas can be identified. The first area of concern is the city’s skyscrapers. As there are more than sixty five skyscrapers in the city, they can serve as a potential target of terrorist attacks. Modern terrorists are aware of the possibility of large-scale terrorist attacks initiation in a 9/11 style. Although the current security standards are much higher than fifteen years ago, skyscrapers still constitute a potential target for attacks as terrorists may modify the methods used.
The second area of concern is the Metropolis International Airport. Airports are traditionally considered as being potential targets for terrorist attacks, which is especially relevant for Metropolis as it is the largest city in Florida and has a strategic significance for commercial companies and international corporations (City of Belevue, 2012). Metropolis International Airport can be used by terrorists for maximizing the number of victims. Moreover, any terrorist attacks in this area can cause substantial transport problems throughout the country and contribute to a large-scale panic within the city’s population.
The third area of concern is the Gator River dam. As it is the main source of electricity for the whole Metropolis region, potential terrorists may aim at this object. If their terrorist attempts are successful, they can create substantial energy problems for the region. Moreover, it may be used as a basis for further terrorist attacks in the city. Energy problems will cause substantial economic and financial difficulties for Metropolis that will have corresponding long-term effects on this area. The potential terrorist attack on the Gator River dam can also change the local sea level that may lead to additional material losses and even threats to people’s lives. Therefore, the Gator River dam is one of the major targets for potential terrorists both in relation to immediate negative consequences and opportunities for further destabilization.
The fourth potential area of concern is the Metropolis Port Authority. It also has a strategic significance as it fulfills the functions of an international seaport and a transportation system for various goods. The terrorist attack against the seaport can primarily aim at creating economic and logistic differences for the region. Moreover, as the Metropolis Port Authority satisfies the needs of both tourists and commercial companies, it creates additional opportunities for implementing terrorist plans. The fifth potential area of concern is the city’s railways. They may present a potential interest for terrorists because military objects are viewed as main targets. As the majority of terrorist attacks are directed not only against the civilian population but also against a given national government, terrorists may aim at attacking railroads.
The sixth area of concern is the major sports events that are organized in Metropolis. They primarily include NFL and NBA events. Although college sports and golf tournaments have some risks and may serve as potential targets, their probability is much lower for the following reasons. First, the number of viewers of NFL and NBA events is typically much higher. Thus, the number of victims and the level of damages can also be much higher. Second, it will create a corresponding atmosphere of fear in society. Terrorists typically aim not only at imposing direct damages on the city or the population but also at affecting them from a psychological perspective.
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The seventh area of concern is the annual Gator Jazz Festival. As the number of visitors is especially high (more than 30,000 people), it is the optimal target for terrorists in relation to the increase of the potential number of victims. It will allow both attaining the major terrorists’ objectives and destroying the reputation of the event. The eighth area is the city’s large malls. The largest two outdoor malls can experience especially high threats because of both the high number of visitors and corresponding infrastructure significance.
Four Types of Resiliency Planning
Risks mitigation and prevention are highly important for any successful emergency planning. If the process of risks specification and minimization is correctly organized, the overall social costs can be effectively reduced. It is possible to apply the resiliency planning to the terrorist threats present in Metropolis. The first type of resiliency planning can be examined using the Metropolis International Airport as an example. As the government realizes that it is one of the major targets for potential terrorist attacks, corresponding prevention measures should be taken. The airport security consists of the following basic aspects.
First, the enforcement authority should possess the necessary amount of power to control the actions of all visitors, tourists, etc. At the same time, the basic individual rights and liberties should not be violated. Second, all passengers should be verified; it may have the form of “screening” through the SPOT program. As the Metropolis International Airport is one of the major national airports, the highest security standards should be implemented. Finally, the Airport should possess all necessary material and human resources to neutralize any terrorist threat if its probability becomes critical.
The second type may be examined in relation to the Gator River dam. This dam has a strategic role as it is the main source of energy for the entire Metropolis region. Therefore, the prevention measures should include establishing the strictest possible control to the strategic object. Only corresponding professionals should have an access. Moreover, it is reasonable to ensure that a sufficient number of people are in the Gator River dam to address all potential challenges. Police forces and private security agencies can establish an additional protection. All unauthorized people should not have any access to this object, as well as all secret technological information should be strictly protected. The security system should be organized in a way that additional forces and specialists can be immediately directed to the object in case of occurrence of any extraordinary situation.
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The third type may be analyzed using the Metropolis Port Authority as an example. As all seaports have a strategic significance for terrorists, the security managers should be considerable. First of all, two major sources of potential risks should be specified. The first one is associated with trade operations. The second one is related to tourists. The prevention mechanisms should be different. In relation to the first one, the large-scale programs should be implemented. The government agencies should verify all trade partners. Especially high control standards should be applied to those companies that only begin their operations in Metropolis. In relation to tourists, it is necessary to target the key tourist groups and assess the expected probability of misbehavior. If the probability becomes critically high, additional preventive measures should be implemented.
The fourth type of resiliency planning may be examined in the context of Metropolis’ railways. As the major fraction of military objects is transported in this way, the corresponding threats of terrorist attacks are maximal. The regular monitoring of railways should be implemented. Moreover, in case of additional terrorist threats, a higher number of armed and police forces should be directed to protection of railways. It seems that the conforming diversification of transportation schemes should be implemented. In case of emergency, the same military objects should be available for transportation through different transportation channels.
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Four Types of Reactionary Planning
Any complex emergency planning should also include reactionary planning in case of some incidents occurrence (DHS, 2015). The emergency managers should be able to determine capability targets and organize corresponding rescue operations (DHS, 2013). The first type can be observed in relation to the city’s skyscrapers. If terrorists are able to commit their terrorist attacks in a 9/11 style, the following immediate measures should be implemented. On the one hand, police and armed forces should neutralize terrorists if they are alive. On the other hand, the rescue operations should include a number of elements. First, people from the region of the terrorist attack should be evacuated to the safe districts of Metropolis, Florida. Second, the large-scale rescue operations should be organized in relation to people from collapsed buildings. All major operations should be efficiently completed within 72 hours.
The second type can be examined in the context of major sports events. If any terrorist attacks occur, all victims should be timely transported out of the city center. Fire or other secondary consequences should be correspondingly localized. Terrorists should be identified and neutralized. One of the main objectives is to avoid panic and establish the highest possible level of safety for the rescued people. The corresponding psychological rehabilitation is needed. The entire rescue process should be systematically organized; sportsmen and viewers should be rescued by different emergency systems to reach the highest possible and systematically coherent results.
The third type of reactionary planning can be examined in relation to the annual Gator Jazz Festival. As this event involves the maximum number of visitors (more than 30,000), the following rescue operations should be organized. First, several alternative directions of removing victims from the Festival should be developed. Every group of people should be directed to some safety region. Second, the density of people should be minimized within the lowest possible period of time. Even the state of emergency can be declared if the threat is critically high (Ottawa Community Emergency Management Coordinator, 2014). Third, additional police forces should be used for determining the terrorists as the large number of visitors makes these operations very difficult. All viewers should be controlled and all major transportation systems should be thoroughly verified. The punishment should be proportional to the harm inflicted on the viewers and the city in general.
The fourth type of reactionary planning may be examined in relation to the city’s large malls. They may be used as potential targets for terrorists although it is more difficult for them to organize effective attacks because some level of security and control is always present in these malls. However, if the attack occurs, the immediate rescue measures should be implemented. They may vary in accordance with the type of initiated attack. In any case, people from the malls should be evacuated. The fire or infrastructure damages should be localized. At the next stage of the emergence plan implementation, terrorists should be detected and neutralized.
It may be concluded that Metropolis requires a complex approach towards its emergency and terrorist threats. As the city plays a crucial role in Florida, being an important cultural, educational, and transportation center, a large number of its objects constitute a terrorist threat. It is reasonable to specify the resiliency and reactionary planning. Both of them should address different aspects of the same terrorist threats. The former deals with creating the effective system of prevention and neutralization of the source of terrorist risk in advance. The latter deals with providing effective responses if such attacks occur.
The main prevention measures should be developed and realized in relation to the key city’s infrastructure objects, which include the airport, dam, seaport, and railways. All of them satisfy the needs of consumers from all over the world. Railways require additional protection as they are mostly used for the transportation of military facilities. The key sources of risks should be identified and minimized. However, the city’s emergency plan should also include the potential responses to the emergency situations if they occur. The main elements of this planning include the evacuation of victims from the risk area, localization of the fire or other secondary negative consequences, and neutralization of terrorists. All these measures should be taken during the minimum possible amount of time (usually within 72 hours).